DESCRIPTIONHematuria is blood in the urine. This may or may not be visible with the naked eye. It is a common occurrence in children and adults who exercise strenuously. Hematuria following vigorous physical exercise does not necessarily represent any disease of the kidney or other parts of the urinary tract.
Appropriate health care includes:
Doctor's diagnosis and treatment if an underlying urinary-tract disorder is present.
Self-care after diagnosis.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMSBloody urine with many red blood cells present (gross hematuria).
"Smoky" colored urine. Red blood cells are visible in large quantities when the child's urine is examined under the microscope (microscopic hematuria). Clear urine may also contain some red blood cells that are visible under the microscope.
Additional symptoms in athletes that indicate the need for laboratory studies of the kidneys:
Discomfort, frequency, or urgency in urinating (may represent infection).
Colicky pain in either flank (area on the side of the abdomen under the last rib).
Hematuria lasting longer than 48 hours after your child exercises.
Decreased urine output for 12 hours after prolonged, strenuous exercise.
Prolonged exercise, such as running a marathon, with no underlying disease (benign hematuria).
RISK FACTORSKidney disease.
Kidney, ureter, bladder, or urethral injury.
Stone in the child's ureter, kidney, or bladder.
Tumor of the urinary tract.
PREVENTING COMPLICATIONS OR RECURRENCEInstructions for your child:
Obtain treatment for any illness of the kidney or urinary tract.
Don't get dehydrated. Drink lots of water--a minimum of 8 glasses per day--and much more during hot weather and prolonged exercise.
Include urine studies in your routine checkups every 2 to 3 months during periods of vigorous activity, such as participation in sports.
Your own observation of symptoms.
Medical history and physical exam by a doctor.
Laboratory studies such as urinalysis, urine culture, blood studies, intravenous pyelogram (special kidney X-rays), cystoscopy, angiography, or sonogram (See Glossary for these).
POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONSAnemia due to blood loss.
If there is no underlying disease of the child's urinary tract, benign hematuria usually clears spontaneously with 24 to 48 hours.
HOME CAREYour child should drink extra water, particularly during hot weather and prolonged, strenuous exercise.
MEDICATIONMedicine usually is not necessary unless the blood in the child's urine is caused by illness. If so, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics for infection or medicine appropriate for other forms of kidney disease.
See Medications section for information regarding medicines your doctor may prescribe.
DIET & FLUIDS
No special diet.
OK TO GO TO SCHOOL?Yes, when condition and sense of well-being will allow.
CALL YOUR DOCTOR IF
Your child has signs or symptoms of hematuria.