DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation; Defibrinogenation Syndrome; Coagulopathy)
DESCRIPTIONDisseminated intravascular coagulation is a serious disruption of blood-clotting mechanisms, resulting in hemorrhaging or internal bleeding. This disorder is a complication of an underlying disorder. Blood vessels and blood in all parts of the body are involved.
Appropriate health care includes:
Physician's monitoring of general condition and medications.
Surgery to correct the underlying disorder (sometimes).
Self-care after diagnosis.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMSBleeding and hemorrhaging from any or several body parts. Bleeding may be heavy. Common signs of bleeding include:
-- Bloody vomit or red or black stools.
-- Vaginal bleeding.
-- Red or cloudy urine.
-- Unexplained bruising.
Severe abdominal or back pain caused by bleeding into body organs.
CAUSESPregnancy abnormalities, such as placenta previa, abruptio placenta, or toxemia.
Widespread or major infection.
Some kinds of surgery.
Widespread tissue destruction, as with extensive burns.
Transfusion of mismatched blood.
Depletion of blood-clotting components, causing widespread bleeding. This condition can be the result of:
RISK FACTORSPoor nutrition.
Illness that has lowered resistance.
PREVENTING COMPLICATIONS OR RECURRENCEObtain prompt medical treatment for the underlying causes.
Your own observation of symptoms.
Medical history and physical exam by a doctor.
Laboratory blood tests, especially of the blood-clotting mechanism.
Brain damage, with seizures or coma.
Depends on the severity. If the underlying cause of the child's DIC is treated promptly, full recovery is likely.
Children with this condition are often desperately ill and require intensive hospital care. Family members can help by maintaining a positive, hopeful attitude.
During your child's recovery, don't scrub or take scabs off sores. This may trigger new bleeding.
MEDICATIONBlood transfusions or blood-component infusions.
Heparin (an anticoagulant administered by injection).
See Medications section for information regarding medicines your doctor may prescribe.
Your doctor may prescribe:
Your child should rest in bed until your doctor approves a return to normal activity. The child may read or watch TV.
DIET & FLUIDS
No special diet.
OK TO GO TO SCHOOL?When signs of infection have decreased, appetite returns, and alertness, strength, and feeling of well-being will allow.
CALL YOUR DOCTOR IF
Your child has symptoms of DIC.
Any bleeding recurs or the child's abdomen swells rapidly during treatment.